Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Ketchum DNA Study for Dummies - Part II

With the Sykes DNA Study about to be made public via TV specials I thought in important to go over the basics of DNA and how DNA Profiles are actually processed in simple terms. In the process I will also explain why the Ketchum DNA Study is so profound and why those scientists that actually understand the process and the ramifications of the study want it discredited and suppressed.

First let’s define what DNA. DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid, it is the molecule that contains the genetic code of all organisms. DNA is in each cell in the organism and tells cells what proteins to make. A cell's proteins determine its function. DNA is inherited by children from their parents. The DNA in a person is a combination of the DNA from each of their parents. 

DNA has a double helix shape, which is like a ladder twisted into a spiral. Each step of the ladder is a pair of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in this ladder are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). The nitrogen bases are found in pairs. 'A' only pairs with 'T', and 'C' only pairs with 'G'. The bases are held together by hydrogen bonds. If you unzip the DNA so you only have one side of the ladder you still know what the corresponding nucleotide is because DNA can only pair in this order. This is important to understand for discussions later on in this post.

There are two types of DNA, Nuclear and Mitochondrial. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is found in cell mitochondria and is from the mother only. Nuclear DNA (nuDNA) if found in the cell nucleus and is a combination of genetic code from both the father and the mother. mtDNA is more abundant and easier to extract and test. nuDNA is more difficult to extract and test therefor samples in quality and quantity are required for successful extraction nuDNA.

Now that we have the basics down how do you perform a DNA test? DNA is tightly wound together in its natural state. Think of it like a jumbled wad of rubber bands tangled and intertwined. In order to sequence the DNA the strands must be unwound or broken into sections and unzipped. Remember you only need one side of the helix or ladder to decode DNA because as I have previously pointed out,  A/T and C/G are always paired together. So if we have one side of the ladder we know what the other side has to be.  

Special enzymes are used to break down the DNA and unzip them into single strands. Once we have the DNA broken down into strands we need to stack like strands on together. There are multiple copies of the DNA in the cell. So when the DNA is broken down we may have thousands of copies of the same sequences. We now need to stack these like threads together one on top of the other so we can see the sequences. DNA testing is like a transparency picture. If you only have one copy of the transparency it is light and difficult to see. But if you have 25 copies of the same transparency and you stack them together one on top of the other then you can see the picture clearly. DNA testing is the same way. The greater the DNA density the better, this will make the DNA easier to see or what is known as “Amplifying”. 

In order to “stack” the DNA together scientist use what is known as a primer. The primer’s basic function is to gather like strands of DNA together and stack them so it is easier to see the DNA sequence or amplify the sequence. In the early days of DNA testing primers had to be designed for individual species and even subspecies within a family of organisms. For example primers were developed for humans, bears, dogs, cats, pigs, cattle, etc. If you were trying to identify unknown DNA you would use the primer for the individual species on the sample. If the primer found and stacked the DNA together or amplified the DNA then you knew you had this species. If nothing was amplified then you knew you did not have this particular species. These primers still exist today but as scientific advancements were made in the field of DNA processing machines were developed that could process the DNA faster and more accurately. Primers were also developed to help speed up the process. What is known as a “Universal Mammal Primer” was developed. Scientist with the use of a DNA Sequencer and Universal Primers can now process DNA and get a profile faster and more accurately. Just like with the species specific primers if you use a mammal primer and the DNA does not amplify then your DNA sample is not from mammal. Here is a very important aspect to DNA testing. The test will be affected by the quantity, quality, and purity of the DNA sample. If you have multiple copies of the DNA strands, the strands are not damaged and intact, and the DNA is all from the same organism then the primer will amplify correctly and you will get good clear results. If you have limited amounts that are contaminated the results will not amplify well. To use the transparency analogy again, now you have two transparencies of two different pictures. Some parts of the picture may be alike some different. So when the primers stack them on top of each other the picture is fuzzy and blurred and not easy to recognize.  

The process I have just described in very simple language is known as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).  This is the method the independent reference labs and Dr. Ketchum used in the DNA Study to sequence the Sasquatch DNA. Since Dr. Ketchum was aware critics and the scientific community would be crying contamination she set up extremely strict processing methods in order to ensure she obtained non-contaminated DNA from a single source. She used forensic laboratories and processes to gather, wash, and then process the DNA. The same processes and standards were used that law enforcement laboratories use when processing DNA.  She also used forensic laboratories in blind studies so the laboratories did not know what kind of DNA samples they were receiving. They received the DNA, forensically processed it, and then returned the results to Dr. Ketchum.

The study also used a DNA Sequencer machine. This machine is called a HiSeq 2000 and the DNA test were run by an independent lab on this machine. This machine has the ability to measure the quality of the DNA sample. The HiSeq 2000 uses what is known a “competitive” process. If the sample placed into the machine is contaminated then the primer will split and some of it will try to stack DNA strands from one organism while the other primer will try to stack DNA from the other organism. The machine can measure this split in the primer and determine if the sample was from a single source (pure) or from multiple sources (contaminated). This measure is known as a “Q30” score. When the DNA samples were run the average Q30 score was 85. According to the manufacturer of the HiSeq 2000 any score greater than 80 is considered PURE and NOT contaminated. A contaminated sample would return a Q30 score of 40 to 50. This is an extremely important FACT. This means that the DNA results from the Sasquatch samples were NOT CONTAMINTED and from a SINGLE SOURCE. 

Now that I have explained how the DNA was processed here are the reasons why the mainstream scientific community is ignoring the study and attempting to mislead the general public about the study. This is why the critics and the blogs have sought to discredit the study by destroying Dr. Ketchum personally. This is why the bloggers and critics drone on about “flawed method” and “the samples must be contaminated or faked”.  They know by exclusion alone the DNA Study has proven the existence of an unknown hominin.  Let me explain what I mean.

If you have a DNA sample obtained from hair, flesh, blood, etc. and you had an eye witness watch the subject (Sasquatch) leave the sample. If this sample was then forensically collected in the field and was also a high quality sample in both amount and purity , then forensically processed by the lab to ensure it was not contaminated. If you then used primers on the samples designed to amplify human and mammalian DNA and NO DNA amplified then this would mean by process of exclusion the DNA you had collected came from an unknown hominin that has DNA that does no match any know human or mammal. You have proven a new species of hominin exist. This is what Dr. Ketchum has done and this is why the critics claim the samples “must be contaminated”. The DNA Study documents in detail and proves the DNA samples were not contaminated and pure. 

The DNA Study also proved a new species of hominin exist by the 3 complete genomes produced using the Hi Seq 2000 DNA Sequencer. The samples that produced the genomes were pure and this was proven by the Q30 scores. It is a fact that cannot be argued. The DNA is pure and non-contaminated. When the contracted independent labs took the 3 genomes and compared them to the world’s largest depository of DNA (GenBank) for all known animals to include humans  none of the three genomes matched anything in the database. This proves again that there is a new species of unknown hominin living the forest of North America. 

One of the issues that conflict scientist about the study is how unusual the Sasquatch nuDNA is. When the scientist (those that even dared to read the study) looked at the nuDNA they noticed key DNA sequences either missing or severely mutated. The scientists understand that a human with these DNA sequences would not be viable. A living, breathing, biological entity with this DNA “cannot exist” in the minds of the scientist.The fact that the DNA study has documented the collection, processing, and purity of this DNA and that this DNA did come from a living entity is a fact their minds just cannot fathom. Therefor in the scientist point of view the only acceptable answer is the samples must be contaminated, the processes in the study flawed, and the results fabricated. This conclusion is irrational and unscientific based solely on a belief system and not the facts.

Another conclusion of the DNA Study that baffles the scientist is the fact that the Sasquatch is a human hybrid. All of the 113 DNA samples in the DNA Study had mtDNA (DNA from the mother) that was human. This by default rules out that any of the samples were bear, dog, wolf, or any other animal. To make sure the DNA was not from a bi-pedal ape or a Neanderthal the DNA was processed with primers for both and the DNA did not amplify meaning it was not ape or Neanderthals.  When nuDNA was extracted from 3 samples and the genome sequenced the father did not match any known animal in the Genbank database. This meant that the Sasquatch is a hybrid species produced from a human female and an unknown (novel) hominin male. This is a fact the scientist and most critics just could not accept. In their minds if Sasquatch did exist it had to be a bi-pedal ape or a relic hominoid of some kind. Again their bias would not allow them to accept the facts.

 I should also note that many “Big Names” in the “Bigfoot World” are heavily invested both professionally and financially in Bigfoot being a bi-pedal ape. Many have built their carriers on this theory and a human hybrid would be disastrous for this group.

It boggles my mind that people in the "Bigfoot World" would expect the Sasquatch that has extraordinary abilities to have "normal" DNA. It just makes no sense to me. Let me be frank for a moment.  The big names in the "Bigfoot World" people like Matt Moneymaker, Jeff Meldrum, Derek Randalls, Adrian Erickson, John Green, Bobo, Cliff, and the list could go on. They all have experienced these extraordinary abilities that the Sasquatch have to include Zapping, Infrasound, Mind Speak, Cloaking, Orbs, and eyes glowing with no external source just to name a few. They will NEVER admit it publicly because they do not want to be called kooks or crazy so they keep it to themselves. Trust me folks they know!!! So again how one "in the know" would be shocked that the Sasquatch's DNA is strange is baffling.

So as Dr. Sykes releases his findings over the next few weeks remember this DNA lesson so when the so called “DNA Experts” attempt to misinform and confuse the ignorant public you will know better. You will be able to look at the evidence and the documentation and judge for yourself.


  1. Scott, I think that without this website I would explode. You bring out
    folks to the edge of their comfort zone. Which is needed. The abilities
    of bigfoot that you listed are all things which we have all been told a
    " normal " animal cannot achieve. So we refuse to accept them.
    The paradigm has to change if progress is to be made. I think the
    wrong answers are made because the wrong questions are asked.

  2. This short lesson above is the best I have seen, thank you! I was working in this field of technology many years ago and I hope that as many as possible of all theese hateful people from all different camps throwing lies and bullshit around will read this, digest AND consider!

  3. Very good information, Scott. Thank you.

  4. When I was a kid...many moons ago,I used to read an article that came out was called something like "They all laughed",and it went on to tell about how many people who had put forward their projects etc and theories were laughed at by the public and those who ought to know better...I remember "Flight" was one such article...people laughed at how anybody could believe that such a thing could be possible...there were many other topics covered and all of them became factual enterprises...this "Bigfoot Business" is another such topic...there will be many that will fight tooth and nail to discredit the reality...BUT...the truth will venture out soon enough...and the people laughing loudest will be those that laugh last...Good luck,Scott...and thanks for the effort etc.

  5. I think the problem is that...people like Meldrum, Randles, fear being marginalized and lumped into the same category that Erik beckjord was left to...admitting that BF has paranormal aspects can come later, but first it must be approached in the context of known physical science. If Rick dyer does indeed have a BF that has the bizarre attributes he claims it does, hang on to your night vision goggles...things are definiately gonna get weird.

    1. S.A.R. , I see you managed to put Rick Dyer and weird in the same sentence. Well done.