Wednesday, September 11, 2013

The Ketchum DNA Study for Dummies (Genetic Experts)

Some “genetic experts” are claiming that the DNA sequences that were extracted by Dr. Ketchum are nothing more than mis-identification of common animals because parts of the genome match common animals like possum, bear, coyote, etc. They also claim that any human results must be the result of contamination. This is disingenuous and misleading (A Lie). The “genetic experts” are relying on the general public’s ignorance of genetics to confuse and misrepresent the facts. It has become the latest tactic the critics of the Ketchum DNA Study use to attempt the discredit the study.
The fact is many organisms on this planet share many of the same DNA sequences. The critics are only looking at select sequence of the Ketchum genome and declaring it is a “known animal”. They are not looking at the genome as a whole. Here are some interesting FACTS about the genetic similarity between humans and animals:

·        Genome variation from one human to another is .5% or all humans are 99.5% alike.
·        Chimpanzees are 96% to 98% similar to humans, depending on how it is calculated. (source).
·        Cows (Bos taurus) are 80% genetically similar to humans (source)
·        75% of mouse genes have equivalents in humans (source), 90% of the mouse genome could be lined up with a region on the human genome (source) 99% of mouse genes turn out to have analogues in humans (source)
·        The fruit fly (Drosophila) shares about 60% of its DNA with humans (source).
·        About 60% of chicken genes correspond to a similar human gene. (source).

Dr. Ketchum discovered that the Sasquatch is a hybrid. The mitochondrial DNA which comes from the mother is 100% human but the nuclear DNA which comes from the father is unique or “novel”. This means when Dr. Ketchum extracted the nuclear DNA and used an industry accepted software program that compared the Sasquatch nuclear DNA to ALL the DNA sequences in Genbank. The application is known as BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). Genbank contains 152,599,230,112 base pairs.

 NO match was found for the nuclear DNA, I say again NO MATCH.
When a “genetic expert” claims he has looked at the 3 complete Sasquatch genomes Dr. Ketchum published and he found sequences similar to a possum, bear, dog etc. and that this means the DNA has been “misidentified” or that Dr. Ketchum is “hoaxing her results” then he is misleading you! For all intensive purposes he is lying to you! He is using the fact that a high percentage of the DNA sequences in ALL animals/humans are similar and playing off the general public’s ignorance of this fact to lie and mislead people.

To claim that the DNA is from a common known animal and that the DNA study is a “hoax” or a “ruse” also calls into question the integrity of the Southwestern Institute of Forensic Sciences (Dallas, TX) and David W. Spense. He did the hair analysis and is used regularly in criminal cases as a hair expert in the state of Texas. He would risk his entire career and give many convicted criminals grounds for appeal if he “misidentified” the hair samples in the DNA study. Not to mention if he was part of a “hoax”. He was the “gate keeper”. Mr. Spense would look at each hair sample and if it was not “Sasquatch” or “unknown” compared to his vast database of animal hairs then it was discarded. DNA testing is EXPENSIVE coming in at $10,000 per test. They were not going to run DNA analysis on known hairs from a common animal!

Also the following forensic labs were used, if there was a “hoax” then they would have been involved as well:
·        Family Tree DNA Genomics Research Center, 1445 North Loop West, Suite 820, Houston, TX 77008
·        SeqWright, Inc., 2575 W. Bellfort St. Suite 2001, Houston, TX 77054
·        UT Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd. NA7.116, Dallas, TX 75235-9093
·        USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033
·        Texas A&M University, Microscopy & Imaging Center, Department of Biology and Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, College Station, TX 77843-2257
·        Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843
·        Southwestern Institute of Forensic Sciences, 2355 North Stemmons Fwy., Dallas, TX 75207

During the DNA study one of the reference laboratory used for the “blind study” portion of the testing gave Dr. Kethcum issues over the results. After running the sequences the lab became curious because of the “odd nature” of the results. So they ran the DNA sequences through a BLAST search and when it did not match anything in the Genbank database they contacted Dr. Ketchum and asked her “what or where did this DNA come from?”

 When Dr. Ketchum informed them the sample was from a suspected Sasquatch the lab director became very upset and refused to provide the results of the test back to Dr. Ketchum even though they had been paid for them! Dr. Ketchum had to retain an attorney and threaten to sue the laboratory for breach of contract in order to get the results she paid for! Why would a lab refuse to give her the results and risk being sued if the DNA results had come from a common animal???

And if you still think that these “genetic experts” are not misleading you and that the DNA study is just common animal DNA mixed with human contamination read the following statement by Robert Lindsay. Oh and by the way he is not a “fan” of Dr. Ketchum, in fact many times he is/was her harshest critic!
Robert Lindsay (

"No contamination in Ketchum DNA findings. There is some little-known evidence that there is no contamination in her samples: Ketchum tested the Bigfoot nuDNA for several human genes, the names of which you can find in the manuscript. MC1R (human/Neanderthal red-hair color gene) showed up in the Bigfoot nuDNA as did the human antigen gene TAP1 (most of the time) and the jaw muscle gene MYH16 (which when present showed only a human profile rather than an ape one).

Not discussed in the manuscript are the tests Ketchum did for the TYR gene, which is associated with skin pigmentation, and the HAR1 gene, which is a “human accelerated region” associated with human neurological development. The human skin color gene TYR and human brain gene HAR1 were not found in Bigfoot nuDNA. Now that in and of itself is very interesting.

If the samples really were just bear or coyote or bobcat smeared with human contamination, all of the human genes should show up all over the place. The peer-reviewers for Ketchum’s manuscript only wanted positive, not negative, results included for gene tests, so the TYR and HAR1 data are not discussed in the manuscript. However, you can see the remnants of it in the Supplemental Data 12 appendix. The bottom line is the Bigfoot nuDNA is missing some important human genes that should be there if the nuDNA were in fact simply contaminated with human DNA.

Furthermore, if the samples were simply bears, coyotes or whatever with no human contamination present, the human genes listed above would not be there at all.

The conclusion is that the “contamination” meme bandied about is simply a red herring. Ketchum’s DNA results, whatever they were and whatever they mean, they are simply not a result of contamination in any way, shape or form. Critics really need to get over the contamination BS." 

So the critics and so called “gentic experts” can understand the DNA study I provide the following:

The Ketchum DNA Study for Dummies
Definition of terms:
All cells in the body contain a complete set of DNA instructions regardless of the function of the cell.
There are two types of is DNA – Nuclear and Mitochondrial.
Mitochondrial DNA is found in cell mitochondria and is from the mother only.
Nuclear DNA if found in the cell nucleus and is a combination of genetic code from both the father and the mother.
Genbank is a institution that collects and stores DNA sequences for ALL life forms on the planet. Once a DNA sequence is placed into the database comparative analysis can be run on it using a special software program called BLAST.
BLAST is a software engine that compares a DNA sequence against all the DNA sequences stored in the Genbank database and reports any matches from this database.

The DNA Samples

Three DNA samples were collected and completely sequenced. This means a complete genetic profile of both the Mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear DNA was produced.
Sample 26 -  A piece of flesh, hide, and hair reported to be from Bigfoot that was shot in Northern California.

Sample 31 - Blood collected from a plate that had sand paper on it to cut the tongue when the Bigfoot licked it. This was collected in Alabama by the Erickson Project under the supervision of a PhD in wildlife biology.
Sample 140 - Blood collected of a down spout that had been bitten into and punctured. (Please tell me if you know of any humans that could or would bite into an aluminum downspout and puncture it with their teeth.)  This sample was collected in Illinois.

The Findings

Dr. Ketchum was able to extract good quality DNA from these three samples. The samples were good enough to run through a machine called a HiSeq 2000. This machine will sequence the DNA and produce what is known as a DNA profile or complete Genome. Once she had her sequences she compared the Mitochondrial DNA to the Genbank and found that this DNA was 100% human in all three samples. This means it could not be from an animal or an ape. She then compared the Nuclear DNA to the Genbank and she could not find a match for any of the three samples. This means that she had a life form that had a human mother and a father that was not in the known genetic database.

Dr. Ketchum began comparing sections of the Nuclear DNA to human DNA to find out where it was different. All humans have the TYR gene, which is associated with skin pigmentation, and the HAR1 gene, which is a “human accelerated region” associated with human neurological development. She found that the Sasquatch DNA from all three samples lacked these gene sequences. This means that the father could not be human as we know it!  Dr. Ketchum and the entire DNA project team has discovered a completely new and never before seen life form or hominin. When she compared the samples to each other they were a match or better from the same family or type of hominin.

Bottom Line

The DNA Study collected three samples for DNA, one flesh sample and two blood samples. The samples were collected at different times in three distinct regions of the country. The Mitochondrial DNA was human in all three samples which rules out animal or ape. The Nuclear DNA from all three samples did not match any DNA in the Genbank DNA database which contains 152,599,230,112 base pairs. The Nuclear DNA of the three samples does not contain the TYR Gene or the HAR1 Gene which ALL humans have so the father is not human and the DNA sample CAN NOT be contaminated by a human source since these genes are missing. If there was contamination the HAR1 and TYR gene would be present in the sequences.

Finial Conclusion

There is an unknown hominin in the United States of America that is a human hybrid. The mother is of human origin and the father is a non-human of unknown origin. Since eye witnesses saw the donor of sample 26 and sample 31 and they described the donors as being hair covered, bipedal, and in general appearance looking like the cryptid known as the Sasquatch, we can logically make the conclusion that the DNA is from a Sasquatch.

Please note: The Ketchum DNA Study contained a total of 113 DNA samples extracted from sources to include hair tags, saliva, blood, etc. The three samples mentioned above were of high enough quality for complete DNA sequencing. The complete study includes the hair morphology and other factors that show that these samples were from a unknown hominin.  I chose the three samples above to demonstrate the validity of the study because they were complete genomes. Below is a statement from the DNA study itself:

During the present five year study, approximately one hundred and thirteen separate samples of hair, blood, mucus, toenail, bark scrapings, saliva and skin with hair and subcutaneous tissue attached were submitted by dozens of individuals and groups from thirty four separate hominin collection sites around North Americ.

Here we report the morphological and histopathologic examination, whole mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequencing and analysis, and electron microscopic studies of DNA extracted from fresh hominin tissue.
Overall the data are suggestive of an unusual contemporary hominin with mitochondrial DNA consistent with modern humans but showing marked anomalies in the nuclear DNA. These findings suggest the existence of a novel contemporary indigenous North American hominin.

Novel North American Hominins, Next Generation Sequencing of Three Whole Genomes and Associated Studies


  1. Thank you for making the "for dummies" version, it's alot clearer to read (for someone who barely passed his science classes in highschool)

    But I understand that even though Ms, Ketchum re-submitted her findings for review, I would not be suprised if the results were the same. You mentioned that Mr. Spence would have his whole career called into question if he lied about the hair samples. That is exactly what will happen to all these "scientists and geneticists" if they find that bigfoot is real. These are people who have spent their careers saying that bigfoot does not exist and believers are idiotic fakers and hoaxers. So when/if they admit that it's real and there's proof, people will ask "what else have you been wrong about?". Which is why they'll lie again and again if needed.

    It's not fair to us believers or to Dr. Ketchum, but when has the scientific community ever been truely fair to bigfoot researchers? It's always been a joke, just like the mountain gorillas were a hoax until science was FORCED to eat their words.

  2. Scott, Thanks for taking the time to write this blog post; makes the DNA testing very easy to understand. Our government and science knows the Sasquatch exist but will never admit it because of the almighty $.

  3. This is great!! Thank you so much for for doing this!!

  4. My high school biology teacher was real glad when the
    semester was over. She suggested that I study geology
    since my head was full of rocks anyway. Scott, if you
    had been my teacher, I might have a A- instead of a D-.
    Seems like personal pejudices exist in science just like
    everywhere else. Good explanation, thanks.

  5. Dr. Ketchum has scientifically proven that a species of previously unknown unrecognized bipedal mammals exists within our woodlands and forests.
    However, Scientists and academicians did not care because of what I call the "giggle" factor. One day Dr.Ketchum will be vindicated, but I sadly believe that will come at the expense of a life of a Sasquatch:( They are real, they exist in our country, and indeed, in various forests around the world. However, no one cares who can make a difference in recognizing this species. So we all wait for a tragedy to occur to prove their existence, a dead body.
    Linda Sedlak, supporter of Dr. Ketchum's DNA work

  6. If someone is not agreeing with you, it does not automatically mean someone is lying or trying to deceive you. (The phrase is "for all intents and purpose"; and I am not even a native speaker!)

    If Bigfoot shares NO matching genes at all, it would not be an organism that originates from this planet.

    So what is it going to be? Is Bigfoot an alien or could it be possible that the study by Ketchum in reality is flawed?

    Anyways, even a flawed study does not prove Bigfoot does not exist. I believe they do exist, but it will take more than this study to prove it to the world.

    1. I am addressing the critics here that are quoting these phantom "genetic expert friends" that say when they look at the results they are seeing sequences that align with canine DNA or possum DNA and the pronounce that the study is a "hoax" or "flawed", or the DNA is "contaminated" or the DNA is from a "common animal". I am challenging the critics who are play off the public's ignorance to deceive and yes to me that is a lie. I would like the so called "genetic experts" to take the 3 genomes and BLAST them. Then present the findings with their interpreation. But so far none have come forward to do this. I am a novice but I was able upload and run a BLAST search from the three genomes Melba provided. It only took about 10 minutes per sequence.

      If the study is "bunk" or "flawed" it is a simple enough exercise to run the BLAST and document the errors then publish, but again none of the critics have done this, why????

    2. I have to agree with Scott. We tend to see many comments,or rather "statements",that originate from a "genetist",whom is never named,or any one of the other variously ridiculas scenarios.
      My main question,would be for the "researchers". If your actually seeking the truth,why would you disagree with a first of its kind study,if you have no "bias",and are actually in this for the truth?
      I think we can say,for certain,that when it comes to this fascinating area of study,and when it comes to mainstream science,we are doomed. From what I've seen,they are more than willing to disgrace theirselves,and Lie,or flat out ignore the issue. And,it's important to remember,as an even better example of mainstream sciences true feelings,and BIAS,as Scott,and David Paulides has shown conclusively,IMHO,that the questions the reviewers posted,thus indicating to them that this study was "flawed",were actually addressed in the actaul paper itself. So,we are left to ponder the motives,or even which payrolls,may influence the irresponsable,and foolish actions of the people who are "supposed" to be moral and ethically charged with actaul science,NOT POLITICS.

    3. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    4. I respectfully ask you to provide a list of the "several named geneticist" and also their written opinion on the the results.

      I also ask for proof that Dr. Ketchum defrauded anyone.

      I took the time to make my case, have the integrity to backup you claims.

      If you do not respond in 24 hours your comments will be deleted...

    5. Thanks Scott. It's great to see someone taking responsibility for their blog,and holding comments to a higher standard. This is the exact situation that derails valuable and nessecery progress,for any subject,and none more so than this arena of research.
      David Paulides made a comment a while back,regauding many comments,statements,and questions during the DNA Paper,and all the nonsense and inaccurate statements of/about. Mr Paulides statement(and forgive me for i do not remeber prescisley enough to qoute,unfortunatley) was regaurding a sad,and truly unfortuante trend in many comments,statements,and arguemnets withen the Bigfoot/Sasquatch community,and IMO he hit it precisely. He said in his years,as a law enforcement professional,and every other interests,hobby,or other line of interests,he had never seen such comments,and claims,etc,by people who have obliviously not even taken the time to learn about a certain subject,and/or research the material,and have enough factaul data on the material/subject to make a valid point,either way.
      I think he has a great point. Period. If so many intelligent,knowledgable,and amazing people in this community would simply put differences aside,and stop the "he said she said" B.S,we could make a real difference. The infighting,name calling,drama starting has kept this widely separated,but very unique community branded as a "black sheep" in any realm of legitimate scientific/academic institute for way too long.
      One last thing,anytime,anyone deletes a comment,on any blog/page,etc,,the first issue is "they deleted me because of my comment" or some lameness. Well,that's correct. In this case,if someone is considerate,and cares about thier field enough to put a good amount of time and study,and type up a well written article providing what they understand and witness as the factaul elements,and also provide,(and,always in Scott's case,ALL avalible known,)detals,the quotes/data/statistics to back that article up 100%,someone adding a comment,should be as respectful,and considerate,as to put the same amount of quotes/DATA/FACTS/STATISTICS that would/may show what they base thier disagreement/complaint/lack of understanding on.
      Anything less,and ESP not even having enough class to put your real name behind your words,is extremely unprofessional,and without any class what so ever.

  7. I shared the DNA results with a friend whose brother is a scientist and he says it is good science.

  8. Thanks for this write up Scott. Extremly interesting indeed. I also believe the Study will have its day,as it should,although it may be a while. Mainstream science has already made its intentions with this arena known,and it may take some time,and some new minds in thier respective fields,for the tides to turn.

  9. Thanks for taking the time to put this together Scott. It's too bad some of the people with the biggest opinions wouldn't put their money where their mouth is....donate years of their own time ....gather all their own to have it tested..rather than ride on the back of the years of hard work and expense of others ...then...with a quick glance make a flippant opinion off the cuff ! hmmmmm who would be more reliable as having all the facts ?! many new doors of research are being opened in the last decade. Keep up the good work Scott...

  10. The "Genetics for Dummies" part left out a valuable fact that I have been harping on from the onset: HALF OF THE NUCLEAR DNA COMES FROM THE MOTHER. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANYTHING TO REPRODUCE AND ONLY GET NUCLEAR DNA FROM ITS FATHER.

    And any basic text on genetics should tell you THAT much!

    Ketchum NEVER UNDERSTIOOD THAT PART. Ketchum's study has been flawed from the start because she has never admitted to how normal sexual reproduction takes place. IF YOU HAVE ONLY MALES' NUCLEAR DNA YOU HAVE TWO MALES MATING WITHOUT A FEMALE. In ordinary reproduction, HALD of the nuclear DNA comes from the same individual as the mitochondrial DNA comes from

    You cannot have any hybrid DNA in which NONE of the nuclear DNA comes from the female side. You cannot have ANYTHING that reproduces normally and has the nuclear DNA ONLY from the male side. You cannot have anything crossed with a human female that has not got HALF of the nuclear DNA HUMAN.

    I do hope that point gets across this time, I am getting mighty hard of repeating it!

    1. I understand what you saying but what you do not seem to understand is that Dr. Ketchum had a flesh, hair, blood, etc from a LIVING biological entity. Your point actually supports the study because yes the DNA extracted from this living organism should not and or could not be from a normal reproduction process yet here it is. If you have a biological entity that displays strange or paranormal abilities to include but not limited to: Infra-sound, the ability to cloak or become invisible, glowing eyes with no apparent light source to reflect, great strength and agility, giant size, etc. Then I think it logical to expect it's DNA to be as strange. Yet when the study documents this the critics can't accept it so it "MUST BE" contamination, flawed process, or a hoax.

      In the study she documents the following:
      1. The samples exist and contain DNA
      2. The DNA came from a large unknown hominin - eye witness reports at the area of collection and Sample 26 actual piece of flesh with eye witness corroboration.
      3. The DNA extracted was NOT contaminated
      4. The DNA acted strange, did not conform to the norms - Universal Mammal Primers failed to attach to the DNA stands. This is impossible if it a known human or animal.
      5. She documented that the mtDNA was from human female source but the nuDNA was from an unknown source. A source that DNA was NOVEL, unusual, and even missing key components to make it a viable human. In other words if this creature was human it could not develop in the womb because without the missing DNA the fetus would not be viable, YET here it is ALIVE and leaving behind DNA!!!

      Since mainstream science will not accept these conclusions even though the empirical evidence supports this conclusion again it MUST BE contamination, flawed processes, or a hoax. This is not about science but a belief system.

      Dr. John Bindernagel was giving an interview on Chuck Prahls blogtalk radio show, Bigfoot Tonight. During this interview he conveyed a statement from one of his "mainstream scientist" friends "Even if a body was laying on the ground in front of me and I had to step over it, I still would not admit that it was a Sasquatch". This my friends is not science but fanaticism. There is no proof enough for those who are willingly ignorant.

  11. "Even if a body was laying on the ground in front of me and I had to step over it, I still would not admit that it was a Sasquatch"
    This is what I think we can consider THE definitive statement,about the sad state of affairs,that is known as "science".
    Unbiased. No Sir. Not a chance.